So You’ve Done Your Risk Assessment. What Now?

  Deciding on Actions to Control Risk   Completing the risk assessment is a means to an end, not the end itself. It’s an input, not an output. If, after conducting a risk assessment, new or improved controls are required, their selection should be determined by the principle of the hierarchy of controls, i.e. the

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Dealing with Blood or Vomit Contamination in Swimming Pools

  The most common infections spread in pools and spas are gastrointestinal (e.g. cryptosporidium and viruses) and skin rashes (bacteria mainly). Blood and vomit are unlikely to cause illness, because they are less likely to be infected than faeces and skin and pool disinfectants should kill any bugs that there are, provided disinfectant residuals and pH values

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Differences: Hazards, Risks, Risk Assessments

What are Hazards? Anything that may cause harm, such as chemicals, electricity, working from ladders etc. Some hazards are easy to identify (an open container of a corrosive substance), others are not easily identifiable. This can be because the harm that some hazards cause is not immediate, but occurs instead over a long period of

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Health & Safety Responsibilities: Employees & Employers

  Who is responsible for safety and health in the workplace? All workers are entitled to work in environments where risks to their health and safety are properly controlled. Under health and safety law, the primary responsibility for this is down to employers. Workers have a duty to take care of their own health and

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How to work out your instantaneous bather load

It is important that pool operators do not over load a pool with bathers. It makes it difficult for lifeguards to spot people in trouble and it also has a negative impact in the quality of the pool water. Pool operators need to establish two different types of bather load: Instantaneous bather load Total daily

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IOSH Working Safely

Why it is Important to Work Safely

  Society exerts pressure through three overlapping and interacting spheres of influence: moral, legal and financial.     Moral Morals are the codes of conduct, or rules of behaviour imposed by a society about what is right and wrong. For people to be killed, or seriously injured, or to suffer illness because of work is

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Think Small Pools are Easy to Manage? Not Necessarily!

A pool that is 25 metres long, 12 metres wide, with an average depth of 1.5 metres will hold 450 cubic metres of water. If there are, say, 30 people in the pool, each of them will have 15 cubic metres of water each. Contrast this situation with a spa pool. A spa will only

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Sources of Pollution in Swimming Pools

    Physical Pollution   Physical pollution is one of the three main categories of pollution that concerns pool plant operators (the other two being chemical and biological). Physical pollution is made up of contaminants that do not dissolve in the water: Dirt Grit Sand Plasters   Lighter physical pollution will float on the surface

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Flow Rate and Turnover Explained

Flow Rate Good circulation hydraulics are necessary to ensure that the whole pool is adequately served in terms of both disinfection and removal of pollutants. Flow rate refers to the speed at the pool water is circulating around the system and is usually expressed as m3/hr, meaning cubic metres per hour but sometimes the flow

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Swimming Pool Outlets Can be Deadly!

As well as leaving the pool via the surface water draw off system, water is also leaving via the sumps (drains). In a traditional swimming pool, these outlets are usually located on the floor of the deep end and are covered with a square grill. The following picture shows three outlets.     The outlets

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An Overview of a Swimming Pool Circulation System

Outlets     Most of the pollution in a swimming pool will sit in the top 150mm of pool depth.  Therefore, there needs to be an effective system for removing as much of this pollution as possible. There are three different types of surface water removal system: Deck-level Skimmer Scum trough   As well as

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